2021年8月31日 星期二

The buying of the American mind

Government officials can be corrupted — but so can their critics.

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Paul Krugman

August 31, 2021

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By Paul Krugman

Opinion Columnist

Today's column was inspired by the latest twist in our still shambolic response to Covid — the continuing refusal of many Americans to get vaccinated and the insistence of some of them on swallowing horse paste instead. I tried to link this horrifying, if comic, development to the long relationship between right-wing extremism and patent medicine. But I didn't have space to put this in the broader context of how money influences politics and policy.

The simple fact is that none of us are saints. Even those who claim to be working for the common good can be and often are influenced by the prospect of personal reward. As conservative economists like to say, incentives matter.

Indeed, it's usually conservative economists who make this point most strongly. Half a century ago George Stigler of the University of Chicago published a hugely influential paper titled "The theory of economic regulation," which argued that government regulators — like the boards setting rules for electricity generation and pricing — weren't like the wise, selfless guardians of Plato's "Republic"; they were human and hence subject to influence, which in practice meant that regulators were often captured by the very industries they were supposed to regulate.

It was a good point, if perhaps too extreme — regulators may not be saints, but they aren't always purely creatures of self-interest either. But it was too narrowly applied. Stigler's followers have used his logic to make the case against regulation, arguing that regulators will be corrupted by special interests. But why restrict that insight to government officials? In particular, why not apply it to their own political movement?

After all, surely the same logic that applies to regulators also applies to politicians and pundits, including those on the right who denounce regulation. And for that matter, it applies to intellectuals too, especially in those situations where the possible rewards for expressing the "right" opinions go beyond prestige and promotion into the realm of cold, hard cash.

And as far back as I can remember, the world of conservative opinion and thought has in fact consisted largely of bought men and women. (I'll talk about liberals in a minute.)

I don't think it was always thus. I'm not a huge fan of Milton Friedman's legacy, but I do believe that he — and for that matter, Stigler — said what they did out of genuine, unforced conviction. Things have, however, changed since their heyday. In fact, they've changed twice.

First came the rise of "movement conservatism" — a highly organized set of interlocking institutions, all backed by billionaires and big corporations, of which the Republican Party was only one piece. There were also media organizations, especially Fox, think tanks like the Heritage Foundation and more. By the Aughts (we never did come up with a better name for this century's first decade) these institutions had created a safe space, a guarantee of a stable and fairly lucrative career, for people willing to say the right things — tax cuts good, regulation bad — and not rock the boat.

I never thought I'd be nostalgic for the era when big money ruled the right. But traditional corporate influence looks benign compared with where we are now. At this point, to be a conservative in good standing you have to pledge allegiance to blatant lies — Democrats are Marxists, the election was stolen, basic public health measures are sinister assaults on freedom.

Why are so many people who have to know better willing to go along with these lies? Again, self-interest — partly ambition, and yes, partly financial reward. Obviously the snake-oil industry doesn't have anything like the resources of more respectable Republican-leaning industries like fossil fuels or tobacco. But it offers more opportunities for personal enrichment: Ben Shapiro is presumably well paid for hawking "superfoods" in a way he couldn't be for, say, promoting oil wells.

OK, what about liberals? They're people too, with all the usual human flaws; there are plenty of prominent liberals who I know personally to be driven by ego and to some extent by monetary considerations, people like … actually, not going there. But they live in a different environment from conservatives.

The old Will Rogers line — "I am not a member of any organized political party — I am a Democrat" — still applies. Political science research confirms that the Republican Party, and conservatism in general, is an ideological monolith, albeit one largely under new management. Democrats and the center-left in general, by contrast, are a loose coalition, and to prosper in that coalition you have to satisfy multiple constituencies. This makes it harder to sell your soul, because it's not clear who you're supposed to sell it to.

In the subculture I know best, politically active economists, those on the left, no matter how passionate they are about their politics — and no matter how self-centered — feel the need to retain academic credibility and, for those who do consulting, credibility with serious business interests. (See, I told you nobody is a saint.) Many of my economist friends look very favorably on President Biden's policies, but they wouldn't risk their reputations by claiming that Biden has Nobel-quality economic insight — or selling nutritional supplements.

So the blend of craziness and corruption taking place on the American right is special, without anything comparable on the left. Don't both-sides this.

Quick Hits

An oil field in the placenta.

According to Rand Paul, scientists advising against horse paste just hate Trump.

But evolution is finally winning the argument.

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Facing the Music

It's devastated now, but remember the joy.YouTube

Hoping that New Orleans comes back soon.

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2021年8月28日 星期六

Give the Kids a Break

Faking a stomachache for a mental health day; checking into 'grandfamily' housing; and more from NYT Parenting.
A roundup of new guidance and stories from NYT Parenting.
Golden Cosmos

When I was a kid and needed a day away from school to decompress, I would fake a stomachache so my mother would write a note excusing me from classes. But today's kids are savvier than I was, and some are going the legitimate route to lobby their state and local governments for "mental health days" off during the school year.

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A mental health day can be defined in different ways by kids and their parents. Some think of it as a fun day off to reward themselves for working hard at school; for others, it's a way to head off mental overload when academic and life pressure becomes too much to bear.

Well's Christina Caron talks to students and mental health experts this week about why kids need mental health days just as much as adults do (a topic she has also covered).

"Faced with high stress levels among adolescents and a mental health crisis that includes worsening suicide rates, some states are now allowing students to declare a mental health day," Christina reports. "In the last two years alone, Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Maine, Nevada, Oregon and Virginia have passed bills permitting children to be absent from school for mental or behavioral health reasons, efforts that were often aided or spearheaded by students."

Also this week, Lisa Damour offers a few other ways to support teens as they get back to school. The takeaways: Don't grill your teen about their feelings but talk about the emotional climate that surrounds them; allow your child to get feelings off their chest without flying off the handle yourself; and try distracting them from their woes with a fun activity when they're dwelling on a bad situation.

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While students get back to class, some parents who had been working remotely during the pandemic are being asked by their employers to return to work on-site. Diane Mehta asks employment experts how parents can go about maintaining flexible work schedules that allow for caregiving.

Everyone needs support, including the roughly 2.3 million grandparents who have stepped in to raise young family members when their parents were unable. "More older Americans are finding a haven in the 'grandfamily housing' communities sprouting nationwide," Carly Stern writes. These developments offer stable, lower-cost housing and amenities, such as access to mental health care, for families in which children are being reared by older relatives.

Finally, in the latest episode of the "Sway" podcast, Kara Swisher talks to the head of one of America's biggest teachers unions about why vaccine mandates for teachers have been a harder sell than mask mandates for students, among other controversial topics.

To learn more about coping with kids, Covid and back-to-school, join Tara Parker-Pope, the Times's Well columnist, on Sept. 1 at 2 p.m. E.S.T. for a New York Times Instagram live conversation with Lisa Damour, an adolescent therapist and Times columnist. They'll be taking your questions, sharing the latest science and offering guidance for parents and families navigating the uncertainty of pandemic back-to-school.

Thanks for reading!

— Melonyce McAfee, senior editor, NYT Parenting

THIS WEEK IN NYT PARENTING

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Eleni Kalorkoti

Teens Are Advocating for Mental Health Days Off School

The decline in the mental health of children and adolescents has led to new laws allowing kids to attend to their own self-care.

By Christina Caron

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Derek Brahney

How Parents Can Ask for Flexibility When Offices Reopen

With some employers looking to bring staff back to work on-site, here's how parents can ask for schedule accommodations.

By Diane Mehta

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Mason Trinca for The New York Times

retiring

'Grandfamily' Housing Caters to Older Americans Raising Children

Intergenerational communities are sprouting up as the need grows for homes that suit aging adults and their young charges.

By Carly Stern

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Photograph by The American Federation of Teachers

Why Vaccine Mandates for Teachers Have Been a Harder Sell Than Mask Mandates for Kids

The most powerful teachers' union president in America discusses school reopening, mask mandates and vaccine-or-test requirements.

By 'Sway'

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Kim Ryu

How to Support Teenagers as They Head Back to School

Adolescents are readying for the next step in a seemingly endless set of challenges. Here's how to help them regulate their emotions.

By Lisa Damour

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